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Defective Insulin Signalling, Mediated by Inflammation, Connects Obesity to Alzheimer Disease; Relevant Pharmacological Therapies and Preventive Dietary Interventions

[ Vol. 14 , Issue. 8 ]

Author(s):

Arantxa Rodriguez-Casado, Adolfo Toledano-Díaz and Adolfo Toledano   Pages 894 - 911 ( 18 )

Abstract:


Background: Recent evidence suggests that obesity, besides being a risk factor for cardiovascular events, also increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Insulin resistance is common in all cases of obesity and appears to be the linkage between both diseases. Obesity, often associated with excessive fat and sugar intake, represents a preclinical stage toward insulin resistance during which nutrition intervention is likely to have maximum effect.

Objective: In this way, healthy lifestyles lifetime to prevent obesity-related modifiable risk factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic disorders could be simultaneously beneficial for preserving cognition and controlling the Alzheimer’s disease.

Method: This review relates extensive research literature on facts linking nutrients and dietary patterns to obesity and Alzheimer’s disease. In addition briefly presents molecular mechanisms involved in obesity- induced insulin resistance and the contribution of peripheral inflammatory and defective insulin signalling pathways, as well as ectopic lipids accumulation to Alzheimer’s development through brain inflammation, neuronal insulin resistance, and cognitive dysfunction seen in Alzheimer’s disease.

Results: The work relates current and emerging pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for the management of obesity, insulin resistance and Alzheimer’s considering them as disorders with common molecular features.

Conclusion: The findings of this review validate the importance of some nutritional interventions as possible approach to prevent or delay simultaneously progression of Alzheimer’s disease and obesity.

Keywords:

Obesity, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes type 2, insulin resistance, prevention, diet, nutrition, nutraceuticals.

Affiliation:

Instituto Cajal, CSIC Madrid, Animal Reproduction Department, INIA Madrid, Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Madrid



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