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Vascular Risk Factors and Lesions of Vascular Nature in Magnetic Resonance as Predictors of Progression to Dementia in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 7 ]

Author(s):

Raul Romero-Sevilla*, Ignacio Casado-Naranjo, Juan Carlos Portilla-Cuenca, Beatriz Duque-de San Juan, Jose Manuel Fuentes and Fidel Lopez-Espuela   Pages 671 - 678 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Background: Evidence of the effect of vascular risk factors and white matter lesions on the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia is not conclusive.

Objective: The study aimed to analyze the impact of these factors on MCI progression to dementia from a global perspective.

Methods: Our study included a population of 105 patients with MCI.

Results: After a mean follow-up period of 3.09 years (range, 2-3.79), 47 patients (44.76%) progressed to dementia: 32 (30.8%) to mixed dementia, 13 (12.5%) to probable AD, and 2 (1.9%) to vascular dementia. Total cholesterol levels (OR: 1.015 [1.003-1.028]) and LDL cholesterol levels (OR: 1.018 [1.004-1.032]) increased the risk of progression to dementia. Cystatin C was a protective factor against progression to dementia (OR: 0.119 [0.015-0.944], p = 0.044). During the second year of follow-up, the presence of subcortical white matter hyperintensities increased the risk of progression to dementia (OR: 5.854 [1.008- 33.846]). Subcortical and periventricular white matter hyperintensities were also associated with an increased risk of progression to dementia during the second year of follow-up (OR: 3.130 [1.098-8.922] and OR: 3.561 [1.227-10.334], respectively). The same was true for silent infarcts (OR: 4.308 [1.480- 12.500]).

Conclusion: A high percentage of patients progressed to dementia. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and white matter hyperintensities were found to be associated with MCI progression to dementia. In contrast, cystatin C was shown to be a protective factor against progression to dementia.

Keywords:

Mild cognitive impairment, dementia, white matter hyperintensities, vascular risk factor, Alzheimer's disease, cholesterol.

Affiliation:

Department of Neurology, Hospital San Pedro de Alcantara, Caceres, Department of Neurology, Hospital San Pedro de Alcantara, Caceres, Department of Neurology, Hospital San Pedro de Alcantara, Caceres, Department of Neurology, Hospital San Pedro de Alcantara, Caceres, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED) Madrid, Nursing Department, Nursing and Occupational Therapy College, University of Extremadura, Badajoz



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