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Tolfenamic Acid Prevents Amyloid β-induced Olfactory Bulb Dysfunction In Vivo

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 8 ]

Author(s):

José M. Cornejo-Montes-de-Oca, Rebeca Hernández-Soto, Arturo G. Isla, Carlos E. Morado-Urbina and Fernando Peña-Ortega*   Pages 731 - 742 ( 12 )

Abstract:


Background: Amyloid beta inhibits olfactory bulb function. The mechanisms involved in this effect must include alterations in network excitability, inflammation and the activation of different transduction pathways. Thus, here we tested whether tolfenamic acid, a drug that modulates several of these pathological processes, could prevent amyloid beta-induced olfactory bulb dysfunction.

Objective: To test whether tolfenamic acid prevents amyloid beta-induced alterations in olfactory bulb network function, olfaction and GSK3β activity.

Method: The protective effects of tolfenamic acid against amyloid beta-induced population activity inhibition were tested in olfactory bulb slices from adult mice, while tolfenamic acid and amyloid beta were bath-applied. We also tested the effects of amyloid-beta in slices obtained from animals pre-treated chronically (21 days) with tolfenamic acid. The effects of amyloid beta micro-injected into the olfactory bulbs were also tested, after two weeks, on olfactory bulb population activity and olfaction in control and tolfenamic acid chronically treated animals. Olfaction was assessed with the odor-avoidance and the habituation/cross-habituation tests. GSK3β activation was evaluated with Western-blot.

Results: Acute bath application of tolfenamic acid does not prevent amyloid beta-induced inhibition of olfactory bulb network activity in vitro. In contrast, chronic treatment with tolfenamic acid renders the olfactory bulb resistant to amyloid beta-induced network activity inhibition in vitro and in vivo, which correlates with the inhibition of GSK3β activation and the protection against amyloid beta-induced olfactory dysfunction.

Conclusion: Our data further support the use of tolfenamic acid to prevent amyloid beta-induced pathology and the early symptoms of Alzheimer Disease.

Keywords:

Amyloid-β protein, olfaction, habituation, network activity, phosphorylation, tolefenmic acid.

Affiliation:

Departamento de Neurobiología del Desarrollo y Neurofisiología, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Querétaro, Qro., 76230, Departamento de Neurobiología del Desarrollo y Neurofisiología, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Querétaro, Qro., 76230, Departamento de Neurobiología del Desarrollo y Neurofisiología, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Querétaro, Qro., 76230, Departamento de Neurobiología del Desarrollo y Neurofisiología, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Querétaro, Qro., 76230, Departamento de Neurobiología del Desarrollo y Neurofisiología, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Querétaro, Qro., 76230



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