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Piper sarmentosum Roxb. Root Extracts Confer Neuroprotection by Attenuating Beta Amyloid-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Released from Microglial Cells

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Elaine Wan Ling Chan*, Emilia Tze Ying Yeo, Kelly Wang Ling Wong, Mun Ling See, Ka Yan Wong and Sook Yee Gan   Pages 251 - 260 ( 10 )

Abstract:


Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder that eventually leads to severe cognitive impairment. Although the exact etiologies of AD still remain elusive, increasing evidence suggests that neuroinflammation cascades mediated by microglial cells are associated with AD. Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (PS) is a medicinal plant reported to possess various biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-psychotic and anti-oxidant activity. However, little is known about the anti-inflammatory activity of PS roots despite their traditional use to treat inflammatory- mediated ailments.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties of extracts obtained from the roots of PS against beta-amyloid (Aβ)-induced microglial toxicity associated with the production of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Method: BV2 microglial cells were treated with hexane (RHXN), dichloromethane (RDCM), ethyl acetate (REA) and methanol (RMEOH) extracts of the roots of PS prior to activation by Aβ. The production and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators were evaluated by Griess reagent, ELISA kits and RT-qPCR respectively. The phosphorylation status of p38α MAPK was determined via western blot assay. BV2 conditioned medium was used to treat SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and the neuroprotective effect was assessed using MTT assay.

Results: PS root extracts, in particular RMEOH significantly attenuated the production and mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in Aβ-induced BV2 microglial cells. In addition, RHXN, REA and RMEOH extracts significantly reduced nitric oxide (NO) level and the inhibition of NO production was correlated with the total phenolic content of the extracts. Further mechanistic studies suggested that PS root extracts attenuated the production of cytokines by regulating the phosphorylation of p38α MAPK in microglia. Importantly, PS root extracts have protective effects against Aβ-induced indirect neurotoxicity either by inhibiting the production of NO, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in BV2 cells or by protecting SHSY5Y cells against these inflammatory mediators.

Conclusions: These findings provided evidence that PS root extracts confer neuroprotection against Aβ- induced microglial toxicity associated with the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and may be a potential therapeutic agent for inflammation-related neurological conditions including Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

Keywords:

Piper sarmentosum, Alzheimer's disease, inflammation, microglia, neuroprotection, cytokines.

Affiliation:

Institute for Research, Development and Innovation, International Medical University, Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur



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