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Neuropeptides in Alzheimer’s Disease: An Update

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 6 ]

Author(s):

Carla Petrella, Maria Grazia Di Certo, Christian Barbato, Francesca Gabanella, Massimo Ralli, Antonio Greco, Roberta Possenti and Cinzia Severini*   Pages 544 - 558 ( 15 )

Abstract:


Neuropeptides are small proteins broadly expressed throughout the central nervous system, which act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neuroregulators. Growing evidence has demonstrated the involvement of many neuropeptides in both neurophysiological functions and neuropathological conditions, among which is Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The role exerted by neuropeptides in AD is endorsed by the evidence that they are mainly neuroprotective and widely distributed in brain areas responsible for learning and memory processes. Confirming this point, it has been demonstrated that numerous neuropeptide-containing neurons are pathologically altered in brain areas of both AD patients and AD animal models. Furthermore, the levels of various neuropeptides have been found altered in both Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) and blood of AD patients, getting insights into their potential role in the pathophysiology of AD and offering the possibility to identify novel additional biomarkers for this pathology. We summarized the available information about brain distribution, neuroprotective and cognitive functions of some neuropeptides involved in AD. The main focus of the current review was directed towards the description of clinical data reporting alterations in neuropeptides content in both AD patients and AD pre-clinical animal models. In particular, we explored the involvement in the AD of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH), Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART), Cholecystokinin (CCK), bradykinin and chromogranin/secretogranin family, discussing their potential role as a biomarker or therapeutic target, leaving the dissertation of other neuropeptides to previous reviews.

Keywords:

Alzheimer' disease, neuropeptides, TRH, CCK, bradykinin, CART, chromogranin/secretogranin family.

Affiliation:

Department of Sense Organs, CNR, Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, University Sapienza of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Department of Sense Organs, CNR, Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, University Sapienza of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Department of Sense Organs, CNR, Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, University Sapienza of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Department of Sense Organs, CNR, Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, University Sapienza of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Department of Sense Organs, University Sapienza of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Department of Sense Organs, University Sapienza of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Department of Sense Organs, CNR, Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, University Sapienza of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome



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