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Mild Parkinsonian Signs in a Hospital-based Cohort of Mild Cognitive Impairment Types: A Cross-sectional Study

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 7 ]

Author(s):

Cecilia Camarda*, Paola Torelli, Carmela Pipia, Iacopo Battaglini, Delia Azzarello, Rosamaria Rosano, Caterina Claudia Ventimiglia, Gianluca Sottile, Giovanna Cilluffo and Rosolino Camarda   Pages 633 - 649 ( 17 )

Abstract:


Background: Mild Parkinsonian Signs (MPS) have been associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) types with conflicting results.

Objective: To investigate the association of individual MPS with different MCI types using logistic ridge regression analysis, and to evaluate for each MCI type, the association of MPS with caudate atrophy, global cerebral atrophy, and the topographical location of White Matter Hyperintensities (WMH), and lacunes.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,168 subjects with different types of MCI aged 45-97 (70,52 ± 9,41) years, who underwent brain MRI. WMH were assessed through two visual rating scales. The number and location of lacunes were also rated. Atrophy of the caudate nuclei and global cerebral atrophy were assessed through the bicaudate ratio, and the lateral ventricles to brain ratio, respectively. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes were also assessed. Using the items of the motor section of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait/balance/axial dysfunction were evaluated.

Results: Bradykinesia, and gait/balance/axial dysfunction were the MPS more frequently encountered followed by rigidity, and tremor. MPS were present in both amnestic and non-amnestic MCI types, and were associated with WMH, lacunes, bicaudate ratio, and lateral ventricles to brain ratio.

Conclusion: MPS are present in both amnestic and non-amnestic MCI types, particularly in those multiple domain, and carrying the APOE ε4 allele. Cortical and subcortical vascular and atrophic processes contribute to MPS. Long prospective studies are needed to disentangle the contribution of MPS to the conversion from MCI to dementia.

Keywords:

Mild parkinsonian signs, mild cognitive impairment types, white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, caudate atrophy, global cerebral atrophy.

Affiliation:

Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma, Fondazione "Salvatore Maugeri", Sciacca, Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Department of Economics, Business, and Statistics Sciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, National Research Council, Palermo, Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Palermo, Palermo



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