Jessica Sarahi Alavez-Rubio and Teresa Juarez-Cedillo* Pages 699 - 709 ( 11 )
Background: Alzheimer´s disease (AD) is a chronic and progressive disease which impacts caregivers, families and societies physically, psychologically and economically. Currently available drugs can only improve cognitive symptoms, have no impact on progression and are not curative, so identifying and studying new drug targets is important. There are evidences which indicate disturbances in cholesterol homeostasis can be related with AD pathology, especially the compartmentation of intracellular cholesterol and cytoplasmic cholesterol esters formed by acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) can be implicated in the regulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide, involved in AD. Blocking ACAT1 activity, beneficial effects are obtained, so it has been suggested that ACAT1 can be a potential new therapeutic target. The present review discusses the role of cholesterol homeostasis in AD pathology, especially with ACAT inhibitors, and how they have been raised as a therapeutic approach. In addition, the genetic relationship of ACAT and AD is discussed.
Conclusion: Although there are several lines of evidence from cell-based and animal studies that suggest that ACAT inhibition is an effective way of reducing cerebral Aβ, there is still an information gap in terms of mechanisms and concerns to cover before passing to the next level. Additionally, an area of interest that may be useful in understanding AD to subsequently propose new therapeutic approaches is pharmacogenetics; however, there is still a lot of missing information in this area.
Alzheimer´s disease, cholesterol metabolism, cholesteryl esters, inhibiting ACAT1, pharmacogenetics, therapeutic target.
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Mexico City, Unidad de Investigacion Epidemiologica y en Servicios de Salud, Area Envejecimiento, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Actualmente comisionada en la Unidad de Investigacion en Epidemiologia, Clínica, Hospital Regional, Num. 1 Dr. Carlos MacGregor Sanchez Navarro IMSS)