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Dual Inhibition of DPP-4 and Cholinesterase Enzymes by the Phytoconstituents of the Ethanolic Extract of Prosopis cineraria Pods: Therapeutic Implications for the Treatment of Diabetes-associated Neurological Impairments

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 13 ]

Author(s):

Heera Ram*, Noopur Jaipal, Pramod Kumar, Purbajyoti Deka, Shivani Kumar, Priya Kashyap, Suresh Kumar, Bhim P. Singh, Abdulaziz A. Alqarawi, Abeer Hashem, Baby Tabassum and Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah   Pages 1230 - 1244 ( 15 )

Abstract:


Background: Insulin resistance causes decreased uptake of glucose which promotes the susceptibility of type 2 associated neurological impairments.

Methods: The study was aimed to evaluate the inhibition potential of the ethanolic extract of Prosopis cineraria (EPC) pods against DPP-4 and cholinesterase enzymes by in-vitro, in-vivo and in-silico assessments. The present study consists of in vivo studies on a diabetes-induced rat model by HOMA (Homeostasis model assessment) and related parameters, in vitro studies through the DPP-4 enzyme assay and cholinesterase assays using Ellman’s reaction. The in-silico studies were conducted by the molecular docking of Cinerin C with targeted enzymes. The phytochemical characterization of the extract was demonstrated through LCMS studies. The antioxidant studies on the extract were performed by FRAP and TEAC assays.

Results: The extract showed 64.8% maximum inhibition of DPP-4, 34.91% inhibition of AChE and 74.35% inhibition of BuChE. The antioxidant capacity of the extract was observed to be 847.81±16.25μM Fe2+ equivalent in the FRAP assay and 0.40 ± 0.08 mmol/l of Trolox equivalent in the TEAC assay. The in vivo study showed competent glycaemic control against significant HOMA IR (1.5), HOMA % β (26.5) and HOMA % S (68.8) as well as pancreatic cell mass proliferation. The insilico analysis also revealed positive interactions of Cinerin C with targeted enzymes (DPP4 and cholinesterase).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the phytoconstituents of Prosopis cineraria pod extract can be significantly considered in neuropharmacology to resolve insulin resistance-induced neurological complications as it showed inhibition against DPP-4, AChE and BuChE target enzymes.

Keywords:

Prosopis cineraria, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease, DPP-4, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE).

Affiliation:

Department of Zoology, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur (Rajasthan)-342001, Department of Zoology, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur (Rajasthan)-342001, Department of Zoology, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur (Rajasthan)-342001, Department of Biotechnology, Mizoram University, Aizawl, Mizoram, University School of Biotechnology, GGS Indraprastha University, Dwarka, Sector 16C, New Delhi 110075, University School of Biotechnology, GGS Indraprastha University, Dwarka, Sector 16C, New Delhi 110075, University School of Biotechnology, GGS Indraprastha University, Dwarka, Sector 16C, New Delhi 110075, Department of Biotechnology, Mizoram University, Aizawl, Mizoram, Plant Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box. 2460, Riyadh 11451, Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box. 2460, Riyadh 11451, Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Govt. Raza P.G. College Rampur, 244901, U.P, Plant Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box. 2460, Riyadh 11451



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