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Assembly, Maturation, and Trafficking of the γ-Secretase Complex in Alzheimers Disease

[ Vol. 5 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Daniel R. Dries and Gang Yu   Pages 132 - 146 ( 15 )

Abstract:


In this review, we discuss the biology of γ-secretase, an enigmatic enzyme complex that is responsible for the generation of the amyloid-β peptide that constitutes the amyloid plaques of Alzheimers disease. We begin with a brief review on the processing of the amyloid precursor protein and a brief discussion on the family of enzymes involved in regulated intramembrane proteolysis, of which γ-secretase is a member. We then identify the four major components of the γ- secretase complex – presenilin, nicastrin, Aph-1, and Pen-2 – with a focus on the identification of each and the role that each plays in the maturation and activity of the complex. We also discuss two new proteins that may play a role in modulating the assembly and activity of the γ-secretase complex. Next, we summarize the known subcellular locations of each γ-secretase component and the sites of γ-secretase activity, as defined by the production of Aβ. Finally, we close by synthesizing all of the included topics into an overarching model for the assembly and trafficking of the γ-secretase complex, which serves as a launching point for further questions into the biology and function of γ-secretase in Alzheimers disease.

Keywords:

Alzheimer's disease, amyloid precursor protein, Aph-1, γ-secretase, nicastrin, Pen-2, presenilin, protease

Affiliation:

Department of Neuroscience,The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Blvd., NA04.508, Dallas, TX 75390-9111, USA.



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