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Mitochondria: The Common Upstream Driver of Amyloid-β and Tau Pathology in Alzheimers Disease

[ Vol. 8 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

D. F.F. Silva, A. R. Esteves, C. R. Oliveira and S. M. Cardoso   Pages 563 - 572 ( 10 )

Abstract:


Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely implicated in the etiology of Alzheimers disease (AD). Evidence shows a mitochondrial-mediated impairment of autophagy that potentiates amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition. Accordingly, recent data obtained from AD models, in which mitochondrial alterations are a prominent feature, demonstrated abnormalities in microtubule network, involving tubulin and tau post-translational modifications. In this review we will discuss mitochondrial- regulated processes where mitochondrial malfunction is likely to start a sequence of events leading to sirtuin- 2 activation, microtubule network breakdown, and impairment of the autophagic pathway. Because sirtuin-2 activity depends on cellular NAD+ availability, mitochondrial regulation of NAD+ levels may contribute to an increase in sirtuinmediated tubulin deacetylation. A vicious cycle become installed which potentiates tau hyperphosphorylation, together with Aβ overproduction and deposition. Overall, targeting microtubule network constitutes a promising strategy for pharmacological therapy in AD.

Keywords:

Alzheimer's disease, amyloid-β, autophagy, microtubule network, mitochondria, tau, calcium homeostasis, oxidative phosphorylation, AD development, oxidative stress markers, neurodegeneration, mitochondrial integrity, resonance spectroscopy

Affiliation:

Faculdade de Medicina e Centro de Neurociencias e Biologia Celular, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004 Coimbra, Portugal.



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